Man page of dpkg-source
Section: dpkg utilities (1)
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dpkg-source - Debian source package (.dsc) manipulation tool
packs and unpacks Debian source archives.
None of these commands allow multiple options to be combined into one,
and they do not allow the value for an option to be specified in a
- -x filename.dsc [output-directory]
Extract a source package. One non-option argument must be supplied,
the name of the Debian source control file
An optional second non-option argument may be supplied to specify the
directory to extract the source package to, this must not exist. If
no output directory is specified, the source package is extracted into
a directory named source-version under the current working
will read the names of the other file(s) making up the source package
from the control file; they are assumed to be in the same directory as
The files in the extracted package will have their permissions and
ownerships set to those which would have been expected if the files
and directories had simply been created - directories and executable
files will be 0777 and plain files will be 0666, both modified by the
extractors' umask; if the parent directory is setgid then the
extracted directories will be too, and all the files and directories
will inherit its group ownership.
- -b directory [format-specific-parameters]
Build a source package. The first non-option argument is taken as the
name of the directory containing the debianized source tree (i.e. with a
debian sub-directory and maybe changes to the original files).
Depending on the source package format used to build the package,
additional parameters might be accepted.
dpkg-source will build the source package with the first format
that works from this ordered list:
the format indicated in the Format field of debian/control,
the format(s) indicated with the --format command-line option(s),
"1.0", "3.0 (native)". See below for an extensive description of
various source package formats.
- -h, --help
Show the usage message and exit.
Show the version and exit.
GENERIC BUILD OPTIONS
Specifies the main source control file to read information from. The
If given with relative pathname this is interpreted starting at
the source tree's top level directory.
Specifies the change log file to read information from. The
If given with relative pathname this is interpreted starting at
the source tree's top level directory.
Specifies the format of the changelog. By default the format is read
from a special line near the bottom of the changelog or failing that
defaults to the debian standard format.
Try first the given format for building the source package. If used
multiple times, the last value is tried first and the first one is
tried last just before trying the default formats. It doesn't override
any explicit Format field in debian/control.
Deprecated. Set an output substitution variable.
See deb-substvars(5) for a discussion of output substitution.
Deprecated. Read substitution variables in
the default is to not read any file.
Override or add an output control file field.
Remove an output control file field.
Specify the compression to use for created files (tarballs and diffs).
Note that this option will not cause existing tarballs to be recompressed,
it only affects new files. Supported values are:
gzip, bzip2, and lzma.
gzip is the default.
Compression level to use. As with -Z it only affects newly created
files. Supported values are:
1 to 9, best, and fast.
9 is the default.
You may specify a perl regular expression to match files you want
filtered out of the list of files for the diff. (This list is
generated by a find command.) (If the source package is being built as a
version 3 source package using a VCS, this is instead used to
ignore uncommitted files.) -i by itself enables the option,
with a default that will filter out control files and directories of the
most common revision control systems, backup and swap files and Libtool
build output directories. There can only be one active regexp, of multiple
-i options only the last one will take effect.
This is very helpful in cutting out extraneous files that get included
in the diff, e.g. if you maintain your source in a revision control
system and want to use a checkout to build a source package without
including the additional files and directories that it will usually
contain (e.g. CVS/, .cvsignore, .svn/). The default regexp is already
very exhaustive, but if you need to replace it, please note that by
default it can match any part of a path, so if you want to match the
begin of a filename or only full filenames, you will need to provide
the necessary anchors (e.g. '(^|/)', '($|/)') yourself.
If this option is specified, the pattern will be passed to
option when it is called to generate a .orig.tar or .tar file. For
example, -ICVS will make tar skip over CVS directories when generating
a .tar.gz file. The option may be repeated multiple times to list multiple
patterns to exclude.
-I by itself adds default --exclude options that will
filter out control files and directories of the most common revision
control systems, backup and swap files and Libtool build output
While they have similar purposes, -i and -I have very
different syntax and semantics. -i can only be specified once and
takes a perl compatible regular expression which is matched against
the full relative path of each file. -I can specified
multiple times and takes a filename pattern with shell wildcards.
The pattern is applied to the full relative path but also
to each part of the path individually. The exact semantic of tar's
--exclude option is somewhat complicated, see
http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/manual/tar.html#wildcards for a full
The default regexp and patterns for both options can be seen
in the output of the --help command.
GENERIC EXTRACT OPTIONS
Do not copy original tarballs near the extracted source package.
Do not check signatures and checksums before unpacking.
SOURCE PACKAGE FORMATS
A source package in this format consists either of a .orig.tar.gz
associated to a .diff.gz or a single .tar.gz (in that case
the package is said to be native).
Extracting a native package is a simple extraction of the single
tarball in the target directory. Extracting a non-native package
is done by first unpacking the .orig.tar.gz and then applying
the patch contained in the .diff.gz file. The timestamp of
all patched files is reset to the extraction time of the source
package (this avoids timestamp skews leading to problems when
autogenerated files are patched). The diff can create new files (the whole
debian directory is created that way) but can't remove files (empty files
will be left over).
Building a native package is just creating a single tarball with
the source directory. Building a non-native package involves
extracting the original tarball in a separate ".orig" directory and
regenerating the .diff.gz by comparing the source package
directory with the .orig directory.
- Build options (with -b):
If a second non-option argument is supplied it should be the name of the
original source directory or tarfile or the empty string if the package is
a Debian-specific one and so has no Debianisation diffs. If no second
argument is supplied then
will look for the original source tarfile
or the original source directory
depending on the -sX arguments.
-sa, -sp, -sk, -su and -sr
will not overwrite existing tarfiles or directories. If this is
-sA, -sP, -sK, -sU and -sR
should be used instead.
Specifies to expect the original source as a tarfile, by default
It will leave this original source in place as a tarfile, or copy it
to the current directory if it isn't already there. The
tarball will be unpacked into
for the generation of the diff.
but will remove the directory again afterwards.
Specifies that the original source is expected as a directory, by
will create a new original source archive from it.
but will remove that directory after it has been used.
Specifies that the original source is available both as a directory
and as a tarfile. dpkg-source will use the directory to create the diff, but
the tarfile to create the
This option must be used with care - if the directory and tarfile do
not match a bad source archive will be generated.
Specifies to not look for any original source, and to not generate a diff.
The second argument, if supplied, must be the empty string. This is
used for Debian-specific packages which do not have a separate
upstream source and therefore have no debianisation diffs.
- -sa or -sA
Specifies to look for the original source archive as a tarfile or as a
directory - the second argument, if any, may be either, or the empty
string (this is equivalent to using
If a tarfile is found it will unpack it to create the diff and remove
it afterwards (this is equivalent to
if a directory is found it will pack it to create the original source
and remove it afterwards (this is equivalent to
if neither is found it will assume that the package has no
debianisation diffs, only a straightforward source archive (this is
If both are found then dpkg-source will ignore the directory,
overwriting it, if
was specified (this is equivalent to
or raise an error if
is the default.
- Extract options (with -x):
In all cases any existing original source tree will be removed.
Used when extracting then the original source (if any) will be left
as a tarfile. If it is not already located in the current directory
or if an existing but different file is there it will be copied there.
(This is the default).
Unpacks the original source tree.
Ensures that the original source is neither copied to the current
directory nor unpacked. Any original source tree that was in the
current directory is still removed.
options are mutually exclusive. If you specify more than one only the
last one will be used.
Also known as wig&pen. This format is not recommended for wide-spread
usage, the format "3.0 (quilt)" replaces it. Wig&pen was the first
specification of a new-generation source package format.
The behaviour of this format is the same as the "3.0 (quilt)" format
except that it doesn't use an explicit list of patches. All files in
debian/patches/ matching the perl regular expression [\w-]+
must be valid patches: they are applied at extraction time.
When building a new source package, any change to the upstream source
is stored in a patch named zz_debian-diff-auto.
Format: 3.0 (native)
This format is an extension of the native package format as defined
in the 1.0 format. It supports all compression methods and
will ignore by default any VCS specific files and directories
as well as many temporary files (see default value associated to
-I option in the --help output).
Format: 3.0 (quilt)
A source package in this format contains at least
an original tarball (.orig.tar.ext where ext can be
gz, bz2 and lzma) and a debian tarball
(.debian.tar.ext). It can also contain additional original
The main original tarball is extracted first, then all additional original
tarballs are extracted in subdirectories named after the component
part of their filename (any pre-existing directory is replaced). The
debian tarball is extracted on top of the source directory after prior
removal of any pre-existing debian directory. Note that the
debian tarball must contain a debian sub-directory but it
can also contain binary files outside of that directory (see
All patches listed in debian/patches/debian.series or
debian/patches/series are then applied.
If the former file is used and the latter one doesn't exist (or is a
symlink), then the latter is replaced with a symlink to the former. This
is meant to simplify usage of quilt to manage the set of patches. The
patches can remove files.
The file debian/patches/.dpkg-source-applied is created if some
patches have been applied during the extraction.
All original tarballs found in the current directory are extracted in a
temporary directory by following the same logic as for the unpack, the
debian directory is copied over in the temporary directory, and all
patches except debian-changes-version.diff are applied.
The temporary directory is compared to the source package directory
and the diff (if non-empty) is stored in
debian/patches/debian-changes-version.diff. Any change
on a binary file is not representable in a diff and will thus lead to a
failure unless the maintainer deliberately decided to include that
modified binary file in the debian tarball (by listing it in
The updated debian directory and the list of modified binaries is then
used to regenerate the debian tarball.
The automatically generated diff doesn't include changes on VCS specific
files as well as many temporary files (see default value associated to
-i option in the --help output). In particular, the
.pc directory used by quilt is ignored during generation of the
Note: dpkg-source expects the source tree to have all patches
applied when you generate the source package. This is not the case
when the source tree has been obtained by unpacking a source package using
the Format: 1.0 for instance. To mitigate the problem, dpkg-source
will apply patches before building unless it finds
debian/patches/.dpkg-source-applied. The presence of a .pc
subdirectory is also interpreted as a sign that some patches have been
applied and in this case quilt unapplied is called to verify that
all patches are applied. The option --no-preparation can be used
to disable this behaviour.
Do not ignore removed files and include them in the automatically
Include timestamp in the automatically generated patch.
Add all modified binaries in the debian tarball. Also add them to
debian/source/include-binaries: they will be added by default
in subsequent builds and this option is thus no more needed.
Do not try to prepare the build tree by applying patches which are
Do not apply patches at the end of the extraction.
Don't use quilt to apply patches but dpkg-source's own code. It won't be
possible to use quilt directly on the unpacked directory but it will be
free of quilt's temporary files as well.
Format: 3.0 (custom)
This format is particular. It doesn't represent a real source package
format but can be used to create source packages with arbitrary files.
All non-option arguments are taken as files to integrate in the
generated source package. They must exist and are preferrably
in the current directory. At least one file must be given.
Required. Defines the real format of the generated source package.
The generated .dsc file will contain this value in its Format field
and not "3.0 (custom)".
Format: 3.0 (git) and 3.0 (bzr)
Those formats are experimental. They generate a single tarball
containing the corresponding VCS repository.
The tarball is unpacked and then the VCS is used to checkout the current
Before going any further, some checks are done to ensure that we
don't have any non-ignored uncommitted changes.
Then the VCS specific part of the source directory is copied over to a
temporary directory. Before being packed in a tarball, various cleanup are
done to save space.
The point at which field overriding occurs compared to certain
standard output field settings is rather confused.
Copyright (C) 1995-1996 Ian Jackson
Copyright (C) 2000 Wichert Akkerman
Copyright (C) 2008 Raphaël Hertzog
This is free software; see the GNU General Public Licence version 2 or later
for copying conditions. There is NO WARRANTY.
- GENERIC BUILD OPTIONS
- GENERIC EXTRACT OPTIONS
- SOURCE PACKAGE FORMATS
- Format: 1.0
- Format: 2.0
- Format: 3.0 (native)
- Format: 3.0 (quilt)
- Format: 3.0 (custom)
- Format: 3.0 (git) and 3.0 (bzr)
- SEE ALSO
This document was created by
using the manual pages.
Time: 14:48:05 GMT, April 10, 2008